Author(s): Masoud Negahdary, Adel Eftekhari, Samaneh Mirzaei, Mojganalsadat Basirizadeh, Samira Ghobadzadeh
"survival rate of patients. Measurement of Alfa-Fetoprotein (AFP) in combination with iconography and liver biopsy are commonly used in the diagnosis of liver cancer as well as HCC. Despite the wide use of AFP in HCC diagnosis and introducing this tumor marker as the gold standard biomarker for HCC detection, the specificity and sensitivity of AFP used in screening for HCC is very controversial. In recent years, along with development of molecular biology and extensive research about ethnology of cancers and simultaneously advances in technology, researchers identified new tumor markers in this disease. In the latest researches various biomarkers including embryonic antigen, protein antigens, cytokines, enzymes and isoenzymes and related genes for effective early diagnosis and monitoring of hepatocellular carcinoma are introduced. In this review, a summary of the data of various studies that discuss new tumor markers involved in hepatocellular carcinoma and classification of these biomarkers was investigated Recently, use of different nanoparticle metal oxides for preventing the spread of microorganisms has reached to the expanding field of nanomaterial research. The objective of this study is to validate combined ultrasound and CuO or MgO noparticle treatments for inactivating Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results showed that nanoparticles of different materials vary in their effectiveness. Ultrasound increased the antibacterial effect of CuO nanoparticles more than the increased antibacterial effect of MgO. These results indicated that CuO or MgO nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial properties that could be additionally enhanced in the presence of ultrasound and, thus, should be further studied for a wide range of medical device anti-infection applications."
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